Genomic Contribution towards the development of human mind - fisheriesindia.com

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Sunday, 28 March 2021

Genomic Contribution towards the development of human mind

 

Genomic Contribution towards the development of human mind or Brain. 


Highlighted Points:-

·         Can the brain change DNA?

· Development of human brain with the Contribution of genes

·         Contribution of genes towards the development of human mind

·         Genomic Contribution towards the development of human mind

·         Role of Artificial chloroplasts in natural plants

·         How to change your DNA with your mind

·         Gene edited with CRISPR Technalogy

·         How your thoughts change your brain cells and genes

·         How to change your dna naturally

·         Emotions can change your dna

·         How to change your dna now

·         How your thoughts program your cells

·         Can your thoughts change your appearance

·         Can the mind change the body


The DNA Regions in Our Brain That Contribute to Make Us Human

A recent approach has revealed a vast number of gene regulatory regions in the brain that have been selected over the course of human evolution. The human and chimp protein-coding genomes are strikingly identical, with just 1% variation.


Human mind

Our Genes Make Us Human

Genes decide more than just the hue of our eyes or whether we are tall or short. Genes are at the heart of all that distinguishes us as humans. Genes are in charge of making the proteins that fuel everything in our bodies. Some proteins are evident, such as those found in our hair and skin. Others operate behind the scenes, coordinating our essential biological functions. Every cell in our body, for the most part, contains the same genes; but, inside individual cells, certain genes are active while others are not. When genes are activated, they can produce proteins. This is known as gene expression. When genes are inactive, they are either silent or unavailable for protein synthesis. At least one-third of the 20,000 genes that form the human genome are active (expressed) mainly in the brain. This is the largest proportion of genes expressed in any organ. These genes influence brain development and function, eventually controlling how we move, think, feel, and act. Changes in these genes, when combined with the effects of our climate, may also decide if we are at risk for a specific disease and, if so, the path it will take. This brochure provides an overview of genes, how they function in the brain, and how genetic research is leading to new treatments for neurological disorders.


Human DNA


From DNA

To understand how genes work in the brain, we must first understand how genes generate proteins. This all starts with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA is a long molecule that is packed into structures known as chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, one of which is a pair of sex chromosomes (XX in females and XY in males). For each pair, one chromosome is inherited from the mother and the other from the father. In other words, each of our parents contributes half of our DNA. DNA is made up of two strands that are wound together to form a double helix. Nucleotides, which are chemicals, are used as a code for making proteins inside each strand. While DNA only contains four nucleotides – adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G) – this basic genetic alphabet serves as the starting point for the development of all of the proteins in the human body, which is estimated to number in the millions. 


Human Made with DNA



To Gene

A gene is a segment of DNA that contains instructions for producing or controlling a particular protein. Protein-coding genes are those that code for proteins. To create a protein, a molecule called ribonucleic acid (RNA), which is closely related to DNA, first copies the code within DNA. Then, inside the cell, protein-making machinery reads the RNA, reading the nucleotides in groups of three. These triplets encode for 20 different amino acids, which act as the building blocks for proteins. Titin, a muscle protein of approximately 27,000 amino acids, is the highest known human protein. Some genes encode tiny snippets of RNA that are not used to produce proteins, but rather to instruct proteins about what to do and where to go. These are referred to as non-coding or RNA genes. RNA genes outnumber protein-coding genes by a large margin.


Gene


To Protein

Proteins are responsible for the internal machinery of brain cells as well as the connective tissue that connects them. They are also in charge of the chemical reactions that allow brain cells to communicate with one another. Some genes produce proteins that are essential for the infant brain's early development and growth. The ASPM gene, for example, produces a protein required for the formation of new nerve cells (or neurons) in the developing brain. Changes in this gene can result in microcephaly, a condition in which the brain does not grow to its normal size. Certain genes produce proteins, which in turn produce neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that send information from one neuron to the next. Other proteins are required for the formation of physical connections that connect various neurons in networks. Other genes produce proteins that serve as housekeepers in the brain, ensuring that neurons and their networks are in good working order. For example, the SOD1 gene produces a protein that protects neurons from DNA damage. Alterations in this gene are one cause of the disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which results in a progressive loss of muscle-controlling neurons, eventually leading to paralysis and death. The SOD1 gene is thought to hold crucial information about why neurons die in the common “sporadic” form of ALS, which has no known cause.


Protein



Is there DNA in your brain (genetic variation in the brain)?

Up to 40% of your neurons contain DNA that has been deleted or duplicated. This means that the genomes within your neurons have been clipped, modified, or copied over the course of your life.

Does DNA affect the brain?

Individual differences in DNA alter gene expression during brain development, which may contribute to conditions such as autism, according to Santhosh Girirajan, associate professor of genomics at Pennsylvania State University, who was not involved in the study.

What role does genetics play in brain development?

Early brain development is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although genetic factors have a strong influence on the early stages of brain development, genes do not completely design the brain.

 

What is the process by which proteins are produced in the brain?

Protein-coding genes are those that code for proteins. To create a protein, a molecule called ribonucleic acid (RNA), which is closely related to DNA, first copies the code within DNA. Then, within the cell, protein-making machinery scans the RNA, reading the nucleotides in groups of three.

What is beneficial to brain function?

According to research, the best brain foods are the same ones that protect your heart and blood vessels, such as green, leafy vegetables. Kale, spinach, collards, and broccoli are high in brain-healthy nutrients like vitamin K, lutein, folate, and beta carotene.

How does nutrition affect the brain?

Our brains work best when we eat a nutritious, well-balanced diet. High-quality foods rich in fatty acids, antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals nourish and protect the brain from oxidative stress, which is waste produced by the body when it uses oxygen and can damage brain cells.

 

Gene regulation and their key roles

Researchers have long speculated that gene regulation (i.e. where, where, and how intensely a gene is expressed) plays a key role in distinguishing humans from their ape ancestors. However, pinpointing the regulatory elements that function as "gene dimmers" and are positively selected is a daunting challenge that has eluded researchers so far.

Machine learning models and gene regulations

The two researchers came to their findings by combining machine learning models with experimental evidence on how closely proteins involved in gene regulation bind to their regulatory sequences in various tissues, and then comparing human, chimp, and gorilla evolution.

Random genetic mutations and organism        

Many random genetic mutations are neither helpful nor detrimental to an organism; they accumulate at a constant pace that corresponds to the period of time when two living organisms shared a similar ancestor. An increase in that rate in a specific part of the genome, on the other hand, may indicate positive selection for a mutation that aids an organism's survival and reproduction, making the mutation more likely to be transmitted down to future generations. Since gene regulatory elements are often just a few nucleotides long, measuring their acceleration rate statistically is especially challenging.

 

Random genetic mutation


 

Plastics pose threat to human health

Study shows EDCs are compounds that cause cancer, diabetes, fertility abnormalities, and neurological impairments in developing foetuses and children by disrupting the body's hormone systems. The study cites a plethora of literature that supports causal cause-and-effect relationships between harmful chemical additives in plastics and real endocrine system health effects.


Plastics pose threat to human health


According to conservative figures, there are over a thousand processed chemicals that are EDCs in operation today. Bisphenol A and associated contaminants, flame retardants, phthalates, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), dioxins, UV-stabilizers, and radioactive metals such as lead and cadmium are all known EDCs that leach from plastics and pose a health danger. Packaging, building, flooring, food processing and packaging, cookware, health care, children's toys, recreational products, furniture, home appliances, textiles, cars, and cosmetics all use EDC-containing plastic.

Key findings

1. Antimicrobial activity, colourants, flame retardants, solvents, UV-stabilizers, and plasticizers are among the 144 chemicals or chemical classes actively used in plastics for roles ranging from antimicrobial activity to colourants, flame retardants, solvents, UV-stabilizers, and plasticizers.

2. Exposure may happen at any point in the life cycle of a plastic product, from manufacture to customer interaction, recycling, waste control, and disposal.

3. EDC exposure is a worldwide problem. Human samples regularly demonstrate that virtually everyone has EDCs in their bodies.

4. Chemical additives in microplastics will leach out of the microplastic and expose the population. They can also bind and absorb harmful substances from the atmosphere, such as seawater and soil, and serve as toxic compound carriers.

5. Bioplastics/biodegradable plastics, which are marketed as being more environmentally friendly than traditional plastics, use the same chemical contaminants as conventional plastics that can damage the endocrine system.



Three people with inherited diseases successfully treated with CRISPR


Since their bone marrow stem cells were gene-edited with CRISPR, two patients with beta thalassemia and one with sickle cell disease no longer need blood transfusions, which are usually used to treat acute variants of these genetic diseases. The results of this ongoing study, which is the first to use CRISPR to treat hereditary genetic diseases, were discussed at a virtual meeting of the European Haematology Association today.

 

 

treated with CRISPR

Mutations that damage haemoglobin and the molecule that transports oxygen in red blood cells cause beta thalassaemia and sickle cell disease. Blood transfusions are needed on a daily basis for those with serious types.

However, since they continue to produce foetal haemoglobin in adulthood, a few individuals with the disease-causing mutations never exhibit any symptoms. Normally, foetal haemoglobin development ends shortly after birth.


Artificial chloroplasts turn sunlight and carbon dioxide into organic compounds

Synthetic biologists have remade chloroplasts, the engine at the heart of photosynthesis, in the same way as engineers cobble together old engine parts to make a new roadster. Scientists report that creating an artificial chloroplast that works outside of cells to absorb sunlight and use the resulting energy to transform carbon dioxide (CO2) into energy-rich molecules by mixing the light-harvesting machinery of spinach plants with enzymes from nine different species. The researchers expect that their advanced photosynthesis system would one day be able to transform CO2 directly into useful chemicals, or assist genetically modified plants in consuming up to 10 times more CO2 from the atmosphere than natural plants.

Artificial chloroplasts


The mechanism of photosynthesis is two-fold. Chlorophyll molecules capture sunlight in chloroplasts and transfer the excess energy to molecular partners, who use it to create the energy-storing chemicals adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) (NADPH). A complex cycle of other enzymes then uses ATP and NADPH to convert CO2 from the air into glucose and other energy-rich organic molecules that the plant can use to expand.

By devising a new series of chemical reactions, Erb and his colleagues hoped to speed things up. They used a bacterial enzyme instead of RuBisCO to trap CO2 molecules and cause them to react 10 times faster. 16 other enzymes from nine different species were included in the study. The second stage was completed.

However, Erb and his colleagues used chloroplast components called thylakoid membranes, pouch-like assemblies that contain chlorophyll and other photosynthesizing enzymes, to get the whole process to operate on sunlight—the first phase. Previous experiments have shown that thylakoid membranes can function outside of plant cells. So Erb and his colleagues took thylakoid membranes from spinach leaf cells and demonstrated that they, too, could absorb light and convert it to ATP and NADPH molecules.


There is water on the moon that astronauts could use?

It's possible that water on the moon is more plentiful and affordable than previously believed, which may be positive news for potential astronauts. Although there has been plenty of proof that water remains on the moon, these "cold traps" were previously believed to be confined to deep, kilometer-wide craters. However, the researchers discovered micro-cold pits, which are permanently shadowed regions on the metre and millimetre scale that may hold more open ice. Cold traps cover about 40,000 square kilometres, or about 0.1 percent of the moon's surface, according to the researchers. Water is essential to human survival, but it is prohibitively costly to send into space, according to Honniball. Finding water on the moon may mean that we should use the water that is still there rather than taking it with us.

 

astronauts could


Credit of Writing:



Gowhar Iqbal


 Ist year M.F.Sc. Student Fish Biotechnology
 ICAR - Central Institute of Fisheries Education- Mumbai




Imran Zafar

Mr. Imran Zafar has completed his Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in Bioinformatics from COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Islamabad Sahiwal campus under supervision of Dr. Ahmad Ali, Bachelor of education (B.ed) from Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) and Master of Science (MS) in Bioinformatics from Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan under supervision of Dr. Muhammad Tariq Pervez. For research work during BS and MS he has also done internships from School of biological Science (SBS), University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) and Center of Excellence in molecular biology (CEMB) Lahore. He has published several research articles and book computers in reputed journals recognized from Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.  His research is mainly focused on the field of Bioinformatics, Genomics, Computational Biology and Molecular Biology in the domain of life science to performed computational analysis. He is now working in Ministry of Education as a Science subject instructor in the Department of Education Punjab, Pakistan.  

 





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