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8610 AIOU Solved paper 2021

 

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8610 Solved Paper

8610 solved

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Q#1: Discuss the factor which contribute to growth and development. How can a school enhance physical and intellectual development of the students?

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A) factor which contribute to growth and development

A continual interaction of genes, hormones, nutrition, and other variables helps to preserve the integrated character of development and maturation. Physical performance is also influenced by these elements. Some of them are inherited. For the last 100 years, researchers have concentrated on the effects of social and economic variables, family and household features, urbanization / modernization, nutrition, and physical environment features such as altitude and temperature on human physical growth and development. Nutrition, parental behaviors, parenting, social and cultural practices, and the environment are the five key components identified as contributing to early childhood growth and development. the environment Economic development and growth are impacted by four variables, according to economists: human resources, physical capital, natural resources, and technology. These challenges are given a lot of attention by governments in industrialized countries. Both nature (what your kid is born with; his inherited characteristics and capabilities) and parenting (what your child experiences, the care he receives, and the interactions he has with people) have an influence on your kid's brain development. Students learn about the four essential stages of human growth and development in these lessons: infancy (birth to two years), early childhood (3 to 8 years), middle childhood (9 to 11 years), and adolescence (13 to 18 years) (12 to 18 years).

The cephalocaudal principle, the proximal distal principle, and the orthogenetic principle are the three growth and development principles. We can anticipate how and when most youngsters will develop specific features thanks to these predictable patterns of growth and development. Genetics, environmental influences, parenting methods, friends, teachers, schools, and society in general are just a few of the primary components that interact in unique ways to shape how a kid and other people grow. that it will become one day Malnutrition causes children to have less energy and enthusiasm in studying during childhood, which has a detrimental impact on cognitive development and academic achievement. Malnutrition also has an impact on physical growth and maturation, influencing growth rate, body weight, and, eventually, height.

The principles which contribute for growth and development

*      Development is Continuous

*      Development is Gradual

*      Development is Sequential

*      Rate of Development Varies Person to Person

*      Development Proceeds from General to Specific 

*      Most Traits are Correlated in Development and Others.

 Factors that affecting for Growth and Development of a Child

*      Parents' education.

*      Family income.

*      The number of parents in the home.

*      Access to books and play materials.

*      Stability of home life.

*      Going to preschool.

*      Quality of child care.

*      Stress levels and exposure to stress (in the womb, as an infant, and as a child)

 

Internal Factors affecting Growth and Development of a Child:

*      Heredity factors.

*      Biological or constitutional factors.

*      Intelligence.

*      Emotional maturity/development.

*      Social maturity/development.

B) How can a school enhance physical and intellectual development of the students

Students' hobbies and learning skills are taken into account, allowing him to select courses that are more relevant to his interests. Useful curriculum should be implemented. Instead than forcing children to study for grades, educators should encourage them to pursue knowledge. Schools and colleges play a critical role in encouraging students to develop positive physical activity habits by raising awareness of the importance of regular physical activity, increasing children's exposure to fun and varied activities, and creating more active environments in which students can simply move. Riding toys or scooters, playing tag, treasure hunt games, balance games, changing direction games, obstacle courses, follow the leader, dancing, frozen tag, or parachute games are all enjoyable activities. Encourage kids to collaborate to come up with their own games and activities. Facilitation, involvement, and proper individualization for each child's developmental stage are all important aspects of the teacher's role during play. It's important to think about how you're going to play. By adding time, space, and resources for play, teachers may encourage students to think at a higher level.

Ways to Promote Your Child's Cognitive Development

*      Sing-a-longs. Sing songs with your child and encourage him to sing along with you.

*      Identify Noises.

*      Practice the Alphabet.

*      Practice Counting.

*      Practice Shapes and Colors.

*      Offer Choices.

*      Ask Questions.

*      Visit Interesting Places.

Teachers can help students achieve this goal by: having high expectations of all students regardless of their past academic performance. To help all students feel part of the school and the educational community. Create learning environments that reinforce the notion that students can master academic subjects

*      Students Can Improve Schools

*      Identify An Adult Ally In School.

*      Have A Real Conversation With A Teacher.

*      Propose A Student-Adult Partnership Program In Your School.

*      Lead Other Students In Taking Action.

*      Have A Mixer.

*      Meet With School Leaders.

*      Support Non-Tokenized Meetings.

*      Hang Out At School.

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Question 2: A teacher has a dynamic role in the overall development of a child. Discuss it with special reference to socio-emotional and moral development.

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A) A teacher has a dynamic role in the overall development of a child.

Children's social and emotional development refers to how they learn about themselves, how they feel, and what they might anticipate when they connect with others. It's the process of learning how to: Create and sustain positive connections. Experiment with emotions, regulate them, and express them. The instructor widens and improves learning by assisting children in role-playing, encouraging them to communicate to their friends, asking open-ended questions, and participating in play. For example, one of the responsibilities of a teacher is to acquire an awareness of the unique skills and information that children require. Teachers give structure by providing direction, support, and chances for problem-solving creativity. Teachers monitor and customize learning experiences to help children develop intellectually and socially. Teachers have a profound influence on all of their pupils for the rest of their lives. This has an influence not just in terms of teaching certain academic abilities, but also in terms of boosting students' self-esteem. In the classroom, higher self-esteem is linked to increased motivation and learning.

Teachers play a critical role in helping students learn to control their emotions and engage successfully with their classmates. Teachers are increasingly required to intervene in their students' emotional development by creating emotional literacy programms and applying preventive measures. Teaching pupils according to national norms in their specialized subject areas is one of a teacher's responsibilities. Lesson planning, preparation, and delivery. Encourage students to take part in class and other school activities. Protect your obligations as a teacher or assistant, as well as any situations that require your attention. Finally, there are protective responsibilities to safeguard children from damage, whether it is harm caused by themselves or their choices, damage caused by other children, or harm caused by adults. In general, instructors' roles are to assist students in learning by transferring knowledge and providing an environment in which students can and will learn efficiently. Teachers, on the other hand, perform a variety of complicated duties that differ from one society to the next and from one degree of education to the next. Many instructors believe that their enthusiasm for teaching stems from their love of children or from their own love of learning. Others are motivated by a teacher who had a favorable influence on them early in their schooling.

Social development refers to the process through which a child learns to interact with those around him. Social development usually refers to how a child develops friendships and other relationships, as well as how he handles conflicts with his peers. Research shows that a strong social and emotional foundation in early childhood greatly affects children's later positive attitudes and behaviors, academic performance, career paths and adults' health outcomes. 1 For more information, see the Social Emotional Development Research Background in this series. Skills such as recovering from teasing or sitting still in a group to listen to a story are examples of healthy social and emotional development. They involve the ability to deal with emotions and impulses that are necessary for growth and learning. However, social-emotional development involves more than just expressing emotions. It is about changing, becoming independent by following routines, interacting more with peers, building meaningful relationships with others, managing emotions and developing a positive self-image. From making friends to dealing with disagreements, the ability to successfully interact with others is extremely important. Children with strong social skills find it easier to create good relationships and this has a positive impact on their well-being.

Supporting children's social emotional development at an early age builds a solid foundation for their future, prepares them to successfully manage their emotions and behaviors, establish loving relationships with others, follow boundaries and expectations, and interact in groups. Social and emotional development means how children begin to understand who they are, what they feel and what they can expect when they interact with others. It is the development of the ability to: Shape and maintain positive relationships. Experiment, manage and express emotions.

*      Start with a skill at his level, help him to recognize each building block, and use baby steps to teach it.

*      Emotional Self-Control. ...

*      Getting the Big Picture. ...

*      Adaptability. ...

*      Predicting Outcomes. ...

*      Social Recovery.

Social-emotional development consists of three main areas of children's self regulation in

*      acting (behaving in socially appropriate ways and ways that foster learning),

*      feeling (understanding others' emotions and regulation of one's own emotions) and

*      thinking (regulating attention and thoughts).

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Question #3: Keeping in view the laws of learning and students’ individual differences, of multi-dimensional activities a teacher should design.

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Answer:

There are a variety of individual differences that should be of interest to classroom teachers. Some of the most prominent are academic ability (or intelligence), level of achievement, gender, learning style and ethnicity and culture. Edward Thorndike developed the first three laws of learning: preparation, training and effect. He also enacted the law of effect, which means that all behaviors followed by pleasant consequences are likely to be repeated, and all behaviors followed by unpleasant consequences are likely to be avoided. One of the first principles associated with learning and behavior was the Law of Effect, which states that behaviors that lead to successful outcomes are likely to be repeated, while behaviors that lead to unwanted outcomes are less likely to be repeated. The six learning laws are suitable for most learning situations. Keeping these laws in mind when planning instructions creates a better learning atmosphere for students!

Importance of individual differences:

As teachers, we must be aware of individual student differences, such as cultural, ethnic, intelligent, language, learning styles, etc. This is because it can improve students' understanding or limit their ability to learn from the school environment. How and why they differ is less clear and is the subject of the study of individual differences (ID). Although studying individual differences seems to study variance, how people differ, it also studies central tendency, how well a person can be described in terms of an overall average within the person. Short or high body weight, dark or light complexion, fullness, thinness or weakness are several individual physical differences. Differences in intelligence: there are differences in intelligence level between different individuals.

Multi-dimensional activities a teacher should design

The multidimensional approach involves the cognitive, emotional and social dimension of learning that Illeris considers. The three dimensions of learning: contemporary learning theory in the field of tension between the cognitive, the emotional and the social. Describing something as multidimensional means that it is complex. You can talk about a multidimensional book filled with intricate themes, characters, plots and symbols; or you can even call a person multidimensional if she had a particularly complicated personality. To be multidimensional is to have your reality focused in several dimensions at the same time. It may seem a little wild to you; a little "Back to the future" so that you can realize that you can be in several different dimensions at the same time, but we would tell you that you now have many familiar dimensions to teach children.

Law of Readiness

*      Hook the learners before they ever begin the course. This can be done via a pre-work activity or a short video introducing the content. ...

*      Let students know why it is important to learn a subject and what can they expect from the course.

Principles of learning

*      readiness,

*      exercise,

*      effect,

*      primacy,

*      recency,

*      intensity

*      freedom.

The Seven Principles:

*      Encourage contact between students and faculty.

*      Develop reciprocity and cooperation among students.

*      Encourage active learning.

*      Give prompt feedback.

*      Emphasize time on task.

*      Communicate high expectations.

*      Respect diverse talents and ways of learning.

Basic Principles of Active Learning

*      Every One Can Learn.

*      Active Learning is Hands Off.

*      Auditory and Tactile Primacy.

*      Responsive Environment, Short Sessions.

*      Mix Variety and Constancy, Provide Comparisons.

*      Work up to Weight Bearing.

*      Emotional Development Involves Mastery.

*      Learning is by Repetition – Allow to fail.

 

 

About Author

Imran Zafar

Mr. Imran Zafar has completed his Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in Bioinformatics from COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Islamabad Sahiwal campus under supervision of Dr. Ahmad Ali and Master of Science (MS) in Bioinformatics from Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan under supervision of Dr. Muhammad Tariq Pervez. For research work during BS and MS he has also done internships from School of biological Science (SBS), University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) and Center of Excellence in molecular biology (CEMB) Lahore. He has published several research articles and book computers in reputed journals recognized from Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.  His research is mainly focused on the field of Bioinformatics, Genomics, Computational Biology and Molecular Biology in the domain of life science to performed computational analysis. He is now working in Ministry of Education as a Science subject instructor in the Department of Education Punjab, Pakistan.

 

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