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Law questions and answers paper 2021


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Question 1“Explain the aims and objectives of employment regulation”

Aim of employment law regulation

The aim of employment law is to give professional security to workers and employers in the working partnership. It addresses a broad variety of topics concerning the workplaces and practices.

 The following are few illustrations of what would be protected through employment law:

·         Age discrimination

·         Bullying and harassment

·         Disability

·         Discrimination based on race, religion, sexuality or gender

·         Dismissal and employee grievances

·         Employment contracts

·         Equal pay

·         Holiday pay

·         Minimum wage

·         Parental leave

·         Redundancy

·         Working hours

The sources of employment law are:

·         Legislation

·         European law

·         Codes of practice & regulations.

Objectives of Employment Law:

The distribution of discrimination in societies is known as social justice, and it has been concentrated on freedom and liberty. Social justice often concerns equality with freedom and dignity in the environment. Occupational safety for workers is intended to find the right balance between labor standards and equal care for the workers who perform them. Labor laws at work derive from both constitutional and contractual provisions(Barnard, 2012).

 

Employees' legal protections

They include benefits as an individual under workplace law. This may involve the following:

·   A right to written terms that outline their job rights and responsibilities, as a minimum. 

·         The right to sick, holiday, and parental leave pay

·         The right to claim redundancy and unfair dismissal after 2 years of service.

Employees' freedom

As an employee, they are entitled to such protections under the statute. They vary from employers in several ways, but they are also covered by many of the same rules. This may involve the following:

·         A right to written terms which outline their job rights and responsibilities. 

·         The right to national minimum wage

·         The right to paid holiday

·         Payslips

·         Protection against unlawful discrimination 

Self-employed people really do have privileges.

Irrespective of the nature of their jobs, self-employed individuals are mostly covered by employment act. While it is not as detailed as the previous workplace designations, there are also certain aspects to weigh.

The following is the list of points:

·         Customers' rights and wellbeing must be secured when on their premises.

·         Protection aligned with favoritism



 

Question 2: Describe the role played by the tribunal and courts system in enforcing employment law”

The aim of administering employment law in tribunals and courts is to ensure that cases brought before them are treated equally and regularly. Delivering a conclusion that is consistent with the proof they've been given. They would consider the reality about both the employee and the boss. In most cases, it is the employer's duty to show that they handled the matter appropriately, taking into account their company's rules and ensuring that they did not break any existing labor regulations relating to the employee and their circumstances.

Some labor legislation in UK  is pointed to as constitutional or commercial law, and it is applied by one party against another.The most significant ideal consequence is typically reward. The majority of lawsuits taken to the court are brought by a former or existing employee, or a disqualified career claimant, who argues that their employer has damaged them in some way and has done so in breach of the charter(Heery, 2010).

Controversies investigated before work proceedings have the accompanying points as mentioned below:

·         Unfair dismissal.

·         Wrongful dismissal.

·         Discrimination (race, sex, disability, religion or belief; sexual orientation, age, maternity or paternity leave/pay).

·         Equal pay.

·         Deductions from wages.

The below are few descriptions of workplace evidence presented by federal courts:

·         Accidents at work.

·         Restrictive covenants.

·         Contract claims for non-payment of wages.

·         Wrongful dismissal claims and other contract claims.

Roles of the Tribunal

The Labor Court serves a variety of functions. The labour committee's main duty is to settle organizational disputes between workers and workers in general. In the United Kingdom, labor courts were established to address the need for gender representation in the workplace. On a more basic starting point, the labor courts' role is to attempt to resolve disagreements over the following points:

·         unfair dismissal claims

·         wrongful dismissal claims

·         discrimination claims

·         equal pay claims

·         deduction claims

·         redundancy claims

·         breaches of contract

·         unfair working hour claims

·         statutory holiday entitlement

·         underpayment of minimum wages

·         breach of Agency Workers Regulations

·         refusal of employment based on trade union membership

·         part-time discriminatory claims

·         public duty and trade union refusal

·         other related contractual disputes

 

 

Question 3: “Explain how cases can be settled before or during formal legal procedures”

A binding settlement concluded following disputes on a civil issue, usually before or after a court hearing, is known as a resolution. Inside the rules sector, the phrase is often used in other contexts. Instead of a single invoice, the signed arrangements ask for annual fees. When parties sue (or threaten to sue) each other in court cases, in addition to settling the conflict between them, a resolution is a potential (and common) result. Outside of courts, plaintiffs and designated trial defendants will settle their differences.

The agreement is that in return for the promise written in the contract, a claimant would give up the right to sue (if they haven't already) or to appeal the case (if the complainant has already sued). The contract will be carried out by the courts. The defaulting party will be liable for breach of contract if it is violated. In certain countries, the defaulting party might be subject to the initial action being reinstated(Hudec, 1999).

The settlement of the case, which is often carried out by a judicial order, determines the legal terms of the parties following a joint stipulation between the claimants. The complainant and defendant will merely file a note that the action has been dismissed in those circumstances (for example, if the charges have been settled with the settlement of a certain amount of money).

In the majority of cases, a settlement is achieved. Both parties (regardless of relative financial resources) have a strong incentive to bargain in order to avoid litigation costs (such as legal fees, expert witness fees, and so on), as well as time and tension, particularly where a jury trial is possible. Usually, one or more sides would seek mediation early on in the situation. To try to reach an agreement, the parties may schedule (and the court can request) a mediation conference.

 

Question 4: “Identify the main principles of discrimination law during recruitment, selection and employment”

In contentious cases, it might be written into an agreement that the parties keep the contents of the arrangement and any relevant matter information confidential, or that by agreeing to the settlement, one of the parties (usually the party suing) does not admit any fault or error in the matter itself.

Recognize the fundamental principles of discrimination law as they apply to recruiting, internships, and jobs.

While there is no legislation that governs recruiting and work, there are a variety of regulations that control the employment relationship and have an effect on problems that occur prior to employment(Ancheta, 2007).

Discrimination in the workplace intends an individual for justifications except for their skills and experience, as well as when an employer recruits an applicant for justifications besides their academic qualifications.

According to the Equality Act of 2010, segregation in hiring and work allocation is illegal. As a result, it is your responsibility to ensure that the company does not discriminate when recruiting new employees. You tend to interview the best prospects possible when it comes to recruitment.

The Equality Act of 2010 safeguards workers with "protected attributes" against sexual discrimination. Safe markers include anatomy, marital status, gender reassignment, breastfeeding, motherhood, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, religion or values, and era. Such laws apply to public and private procurement departments, associations, and employers' mutual boards of directors in charge of learning and training.

Principles of Discrimination

Employers are prevented by the Equality Act of 2010 from discrimination towards work applicants (and existing employees) relying on a "safe attribute," including such mentioned points:

·         age

·         disability

·         gender reassignment

·         race

·         religion or belief

·         sex

·         sexual orientation

·         marriage and civil partnership

·         Pregnancy and maternity.

 

Question 5: “Explain how contracts of employment are established”

An employment licensing is a contractual agreement between the employer and a worker. The National Employment Standards describes a worker in the European Union as a citizen who has enrolled into or is employed underneath a contract or apprenticeship contract(Anderman, 2000).

The foundation of labor law is contract law. An employment relationship requires both the boss and the employee. In exchange for compensation from the boss, the employee decides to work for them. If one of the parties breaches this deal, the other would be in violation of contract with the other. Then according to labor law, the following provisions are always met in attempt to develop a legally enforceable employment contract:

·         offer

·         acceptance

·         intention to create legal relations

·         consideration

·         Certainty as to terms

An employment contract lays out each party's responsibilities and rights, protecting the employee's job and the employer against risks such as lost productivity due to uncertain working hours. The boss shall supply you with a written statement on the first day of work. The argument must contain those requirements. A contract outlines you and your manager's rights and responsibilities. One of the most well-known examples is that you have a legitimate right to be compensated for your work.        

 

Question 6: “Describe when and how contracts can be changed lawfully”

An employment contract lays out each party's duties and rights, safeguarding both the employee's job and the employer's output from risks like decreased productivity due to inconsistent working hours. The boss must supply you with a written statement on the first day of work. The argument shall include these provisions. A contract spells out your rights and responsibilities, as well as those of your manager. You have a legitimate right to be paid for the job you do, which is one of the most well-known factors(Arnow-Richman, 2016).

When change

Explanations for terminating a contract of work

Employers

Employers can be forced to make adjustments as a result of changing economic conditions.

Employees

Employees could also request that the terms of their contract be altered.

The following are the descriptive points

·         better pay (you don’t have an automatic right to a pay rise, unless it’s in your contract)

·         improved working conditions

·         more holiday

·         different working hours

·         to work flexible hours

·         to work part-time

Modification of contact lawfully

A change in the law or an arrangement between you and your employer can result in changes to your employment contract. Under contract law, neither you nor the agent will choose to change the contract's terms at will. All sides must agree on the modifications.

The laws 1994-2014 specify how your employer will alert you of any changes to the terms of employment (information). These safeguards have no bearing on the requirement that any contract amendments be accepted by both you and your boss.

 

Question 7: “Explain the main requirements of redundancy law

Only as a final option should redundancy have been used. This is one of the most bizarre occupational encounters a worker can also have. It generally requires the employer's diligent supervision to ensure that surplus workers are done fairly, as well as the remaining workforce's productivity and morale. Owing to the nuances of dismissal and case law, employers must understand their obligations, including workers' rights and the required procedures to follow(van Kempen & Patmore, 2008).

An individual is fired for wear and tear under the Employment Law Act of 1996, regardless of whether the discharge is due to one or more of the following factors:

·         the employer ceases to carry on the business in which the employee was employed;

·         the employer ceases to carry on that business in the place where the employee was employed;

·         the needs of the business for employees to carry out work of a particular kind cease or diminish; or

·         The needs of the business for employees to carry out work of a particular kind in the place where the employee was employed cease or diminish.

The requirements should be clearly established and as objective as possible, with those who wish to appeal having the opportunity to do so. Your boss should have formal references and expertise, but they should not be the only criteria. Here are some possibilities:

·         Attendance record

·         Disciplinary record

·         Skills or experience

·         Standard of work performance

·         Aptitude for work

If the selection requirements are biased, the dismissal is unfair. A redundancy decision could also be appealed if it was reached for one of the given points in details:

·         On parental leave or maternity-related justification

·         Because you work part-time or fixed-term

·         For requesting flexible working

·         For a reason relating to your legal rights

·         For whistle-blowing

·         For trade union involvement

·         For taking action on health and safety matters

·         For taking lawfully organized industrial action

·         For refusing to do shop work or betting work on Sundays (England and Wales only)

 

Question 8: “Explain the main requirements of the law on business transfers”

A major transformation or changes in the way services are provided are also manifestations of market transformation. When a company bought one of these "transfers" partnerships ten years ago, the Transitional Employment Regulations of 2006 (TUPE) ensured UK employees' rights on the same terms and conditions as they were ten years before(Allen, Kraakman, & Khanna, 2021).

Tools to help with the transition to commercial aid companies; especially those in difficulty; as a result of the service provided by Ley de Trabajo Justo de 2009. In most cases, a contractual agreement will take place in connection with the purchase of assets, the consolidation of an organization, or the execution of a subcontract or an internal mano de obra contract.

Transfers of company

If an 'economic entity that retains its identity' is transferred, TUPE applies.

This can be decided by answering the following questions:

·         Is the type of business being conducted by the ‘transferee’ (the new owner, or the employer who is receiving staff) the same as the ‘transferor' (the old owner, or the employer who is transferring staff)?

·         Has there been a transfer of tangible assets such as building and moveable property (although this is not essential)?

·         Are there intangible assets (such as such as patents, trademarks, copyright, goodwill or brand recognition) transferred at the time of the transfer?

·         Have the majority of employees been transferred?

·         Have the customers been transferred?

·         Is there a high degree of similarity between the activities carried on before and after the transfer?

Q#9: “Identify the major statutory rights workers have in the fields of pay, leave and working time.”

Pay:

The national minimum wage (NMW) refers to all jobs for people between the ages of 16 and 24. The national living wage (NLW) refers to jobs for people over the age of 25. NMW and NLW prices are usually tested in April of each year(Dickens & Manning, 2004).

The NMW course varies depending on the employee's age and whether or not he or she is enrolled in school. For example, the national minimum wage for 21- to 24-year-olds in 2018 and 2019 is £ 7.38 per hour (it rises to £ 7.70 on April 1, 2019).

NLW is £ 7.83 per hour for the academic year 2018-2019 (it will rise to £ 8.21 on April 1, 2019). (The Employment Rights Act of 1996, the Equality Act of 2010, and the State Minimum Loon Act of 1998)

Leave:

Under the Parental Bereavement (Leave and Pay) Act 2018, all working parents will be entitled to the first day of two weeks' leave if they have lost a child under the age of 18 or had a stillborn child after 24 weeks of pregnancy(Denhup, 2019).

The implementing legislation, which will include additional information, is still in the works. Pregnant staff has the right to 26 weeks of normal maternity leave, followed by another 26 weeks of extended maternity leave. Women are constitutionally entitled to two weeks of maternity leave immediately following childbirth (four weeks in the case of workers).

Eligible workers are entitled to one or two weeks of paid paternity leave for each child born. Qualified workers who are unable to function for four or more consecutive days due to sickness or injury are entitled to up to 28 weeks of pay for each week of disability or a similar set of periods. The weekly statutory sickness compensation is currently £92.05. The Jobs Act of 2002 and the Working Time Legislation of 1998

Working Time:

Workers' working hours are restricted by the Working Time Legislation of 1998. Employees are entitled to a minimum regular rest period between working days or shifts, as well as a minimum weekly rest period, under the Working Time Regulation of 1998. Working Time Act of 1998; Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1974)(Tucker & Folkard, 2012)

Question 10 “Explain the major requirements of equal pay Law

Equal compensation for equal employment is a fundamental duty that all men and women must fulfil (work that equal pay law classes as the same, similar, equivalent or of equal value)(Treiman & Hartmann, 1981).

This implies that no one can deliver a lower price than anyone who has any of the following characteristics:

·         the polar opposite sex

·         doing comparable jobs for the same employer

Equal pay regulations cover both pay and job conditions, and include following points

·         minimum salary

·         basic income

·         pension

·         working hours

·         annual leave payment

·         holiday pay

·         overtime pay

·         redundancy pay

·         sick pay

·         performance-based pay, such as a bonus included in the employment contract; • benefits, such as a gym membership or a company car

Fair pay rules are governed by the Employment Act of 2010 and the congressional Equal Pay Committee's (EHRC) federal code of conduct on equal pay.

Equal pay applies on flowing mentioned

·         employees,

·         workers,

·         apprentices,

·         agency workers,

·         full-time, part-time, or temporary contracts, and

·         Self-employed people who are hired to do the work themselves.

·         According to the constitution, 'fair job' means either:

·         Like work' – work in which the job and skills are the same or similar.

·         Work that has been graded as equal' – work that has been rated as equivalent using a realistic job assessment. This may be attributed to the fact that the necessary degree of integrity, obligation, and initiative are all equal.

·         Employment that is comparable but not identical is referred to as a 'work of equal value.' This may be due to the fact that all standards of experience, readiness, duty, and working conditions are similarly respected.

 

Question 11:   “Explain major maternity, paternity and other family-friendly employment rights”

Maternity leave

Women of childbearing age employees are entitled to 26 weeks of standard maternity leave, supplemented by another 26 weeks of extended maternity leave. Women are constitutionally entitled to two weeks of maternity leave after the birth of their child (four weeks in the case of factory workers).

Based on her length of service and weekly salary of £116 or higher, an employee is entitled to up to 39 weeks of mandatory maternity leave (currently). The obligatory maternity pay was charged at 90% of the gross weekly wage for the first six weeks. The previous 33 weeks were charged at a fixed rate (currently £ 145.18, but this will be checked in April 2019) or at the more recent rate of 90% or the flat rate(Robila, 2012).

During maternity leave, a woman has the right to return to her former employment under the same terms or to a suitable alternative position under similar conditions if this is not appropriate. If a worker is laid off whilst on maternity leave, she is entitled to an equal pay status at the workplace or at a similar job.

Paternity leave 

During their maternity leave, employees who fulfil these conditions are eligible for up to two weeks of paternity leave. If you are the baby's biological father or the mother's husband, spouse, or partner, and you have been employed continuously for at least 26 weeks at the end of the 15th week prior to the scheduled week of birth, you are entitled if:

·         You are the child's biological father or the mother's husband, spouse, or partner;

·         You have been or intend to be responsible for the child's education;

·         You have been employed continuously for at least 26 weeks.

It is lawful to take reasonable leave to care for a maintenance worker when it is appropriate, primarily to cope with unforeseen emergencies from the family or caregiver. It is up to the boss to decide whether or not the licence is covered.

 

Question 12 “Identify the major requirements of health and safety law

In a brief, the HASAWA 1974 (Health and Safety at Work Act 1974) demands that employers have the following:

·         Satisfactory welfare provisions for workers at work

·         A stable workplace environment that is properly maintained and that activities within it are conducted safely

·         Sufficient workforce preparation to ensure that health and safety procedures are recognised and adhered(Stranks, 2007)

Employers of five or more workers can maintain a clear log of their health and safety policy and disclose applicable practises and associated health and safety legislation to employees (or employee representatives) like Workplace regulations (health, safety and welfare).

HSW covers multiple facets of the workplace and allows workers to succeed in an atmosphere that is both relaxed and suitable for the activities they do.

Laws for employee comfort and sanitation (such as breakpoints, bathing rooms, and drinking water), as well as fair workplace conditions (such as living, illumination, and ventilation), honesty, and professionalism are both included (such as proper maintenance of properly maintained corridors and floor spaces, and protection against falling objects and so on.) (Tucker & Folkard, 2012)

Question 13 “Explain the significance of implied duties as regards the management of employees at work”

Contractual provisions should be incorporated into employment agreements to make them more workable and to fill up the holes where the boss and employee have not reached an agreement.

·         Responsibility to have a safe, secure, and stable workplace – which ensures the company must enforce programmes, processes, and procedures.

·         Both the employee and the boss owe each other an obligation of loyalty, such as keeping classified details completely private.

·         Adjusting is the employee's duty. Organizational architecture, development, flexibility, and change management practises that empower and motivate employees to develop their abilities, competence, and agility should all be considered by employers.

If such explicit terms are governed by employment law, they cannot be changed (e.g., duty of care in terms of H&S). Agreements, customs, and practises may be changed, but the contractor must treat all workers fairly (e.g., have timely consultation) and explain why the changes are being made (e.g., economic, technological, and/or organisational considerations similar to those listed in TUPE above)(Lewis, 2011).

 

Question 14 “Explain the principles of the law on freedom of association”

The Gender Equality Association respects a person's right to willingly join or leave groups, a group's right to take meaningful steps to address participants' needs, and an organization's right to approve or refuse membership based on those requirements.

The right to speak freely is enshrined as a basic human right in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). It is a core component of democracy and the rule of law since it encourages non-state actors to directly engage in economic and social policymaking. One of the most important civil rights is the freedom to freely socialize. It guarantees that everyone, whether formally or informally, has the right to shape, participate in, and coordinate societies.

Any culture honors the freedom to express oneself. It is a crucial right that encourages people to exercise power over a country's human rights situation and encourage human rights enforcement. This is critical for the human rights defender's position(Emerson, 1964).

“Imagine a world without civil society. That world is bleak. Civil society has been at the forefront of numerous landmark political and social changes over the last decade; changes that have improved societies and individual lives in diverse and meaningful ways.”

Maina Kiai, a former United Nations Special Report on freedom of speech and peaceful assembly, It's also a basic human right, according to the Human Rights House definition. Since we practice it, have seen it in reality, and have firsthand familiarity of how constraints can influence relationships, we admire the right to communicate.

Political groups, trade unions, civil associations, and non-governmental worker organizations are also protected by the right of freedom of association. Individuals, companies with and without legal bodies, and non-profit organizations are also eligible to participate.

Individuals have the freedom to create and join organizations, as well as to take civil and judicial proceedings of their own, which states must defend. This necessitates the courage to ask for and receive assistance, as well as the ability to band together, advocate, and protect human rights.

 

Question 15 “Explain the main requirements of unfair dismissal law in respect of capability and misconduct issues”

Unfair separation is a notable clause of British labour law, which states that when an employee is dismissed, they are handled equally and correctly (Howe, 2016). Section 110 (C) of subsection 1 of the Employment Rights Act of 1996 regulates this standard, which states that contractors have the right to a just declaration before being fired (Davies, 2015). According to chapter 111 (A) 2 of the Employment Law Act of 1996, the termination measure would be referred to as "incorrect termination." If it is carried out without adequate warning or notice, it is considered a violation of the employee's contract. The year is 2015. (Davies). The boss must get approval from clients and coworkers before firing an employee. An employee's incapacity for employment would be calculated on the grounds of his long-term ill health, even though he has done nothing wrong. As a result, no disciplinary charges can be made against workers, and judges are looking at related cases (Howe, 2016). If the illness causes harm, the employer must make fair accommodations to protect both parties. The employer must ensure that the employee's financial insurance is not jeopardized in this case, and the employee must be kept on the payroll in order for wages to be paid. However, the employee can be dismissed for inaccuracies, such as a false criminal prosecution, in which case the boss only has to admit the employee's inaccuracies rather than assert the reality. The prosecution will undoubtedly proceed, but only until the employee is dismissed. If the employee's employee does not agree to his continued job, he will be fired. Employees will be sacked for being unethical, as shown by the case of Alan Druke v. ASDA Tribunal 2013, under which an employee was found guilty of handling third-party products that were not included in the company's ledgers and were therefore accused of being illegal(Carby‐Hall, 1991).

 

Question 16 “Explain the scope of the right for employees to be accompanied at serious discipline and grievance hearing”

The Employment Law of 2008 and the Labor Courts (Constitution and Code of Procedure) (Amendment) Legislation of 2008 provide the most important regulations on workplace oversight and grievances. The ACAS standard of Conduct on administrative and appeal procedures is also worth mentioning. Northern Ireland is excluded from the Jobs Act. Indirect and the Department of Industrial Relations have Northern Ireland-specific discipline, appeal, and termination services. Employers and employers should make every attempt to settle disciplinary and conflict disputes on their own, and enlist the assistance of a third party (such as a mediator or arbitrator) when possible. In the vast majority of cases, ACAS should be able to reach an early agreement; the job court should only be seen as a last resort. Employees who place a valid order have the right to be accompanied, according to Section 10 of the Labor Relations Act of 1999. In the statute, the word "fair request" is not defined(Al-Haidar, 2018).

According to ACAS guidelines:

·         Employers must approve a worker's invitation to join a statutory escort party, such as a coworker, union official, or union leader

·         A worker should shift partners at any moment, but workers should regard practical issues as best practice. Employees have the right to be accompanied whenever they make a valid request. For example, rather than being followed by someone who is physically remote, a worker would like to be accompanied by an escort who is appropriate, capable, and accessible on site. What is called fair would be decided by the circumstances of each case.

·         A worker should ensure that her request is well understood by using the companion's name where possible and specifying if she is a co-worker, union leader, or member of a union in her request

·         A worker can ensure that her request is well understood by including the companion's name where possible and specifying if she is a co-worker, union leader, or member of a union in her request.

 

 References: (APA Style)

Al-Haidar, F. (2018). Administrative disciplinary and grievance procedures for public employees in Kuwait and UK. International Journal of Law and Management.

Allen, W. T., Kraakman, R. H., & Khanna, V. (2021). Commentaries and cases on the law of business organization: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ancheta, A. (2007). Anti-discrimination law and race-conscious recruitment, retention, and fi financial aid policies in higher education. G. Orfi eld, P. Marin, S. M. Flores, & LM Garcés (Eds.), Charting the future of college affi rmative action: Legal victories, continuing attacks, and new research, 15-34.

Anderman, S. (2000). The interpretation of protective employment statutes and contracts of employment. Industrial Law Journal, 29(3), 223-242.

Arnow-Richman, R. (2016). Modifying At-Will Employment Contracts. BCL Rev., 57, 427.

Barnard, C. (2012). EU employment law: OUP Oxford.

Carby‐Hall, J. R. (1991). Aspects of Unfair Dismissal Law. Managerial Law.

Denhup, C. (2019). Bereavement care to minimize bereaved parents' suffering in their lifelong journey towards healing. Applied Nursing Research, 50, 151205.

Dickens, R., & Manning, A. (2004). Has the national minimum wage reduced UK wage inequality? Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 167(4), 613-626.

Emerson, T. I. (1964). Freedom of Association and Freedom of Expression. The Yale Law Journal, 74(1), 1-35.

Heery, E. (2010). Debating employment law: Responses to juridification. Reassessing the employment relationship, 71-96.

Hudec, R. E. (1999). The new WTO dispute settlement procedure: an overview of the first three years. Minn. J. Global Trade, 8, 1.

Lewis, D. (2011). Whistleblowing in a changing legal climate: is it time to revisit our approach to trust and loyalty at the workplace? Business Ethics: A European Review, 20(1), 71-87.

Robila, M. (2012). Family policies in Eastern Europe: A focus on parental leave. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21(1), 32-41.

Stranks, J. (2007). Health and safety at work: an essential guide for managers: Kogan Page Publishers.

Treiman, D. J., & Hartmann, H. I. (1981). Women, work, and wages: Equal pay for jobs of equal value.

Tucker, P., & Folkard, S. (2012). Working time, health and safety: a research synthesis paper: ILO Geneva.

van Kempen, M., & Patmore, L. (2008). Redundancy Law in Europe (Vol. 1): Kluwer Law International BV.

 


<Academy of Expert Writer>

<About CEO>

Mr. Imran Zafar has completed his Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in Bioinformatics from COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Islamabad Sahiwal campus under supervision of Dr. Ahmad Ali and Master of Science (MS) in Bioinformatics from Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan under supervision of Dr. Muhammad Tariq Pervez. For research work during BS and MS he has also done internships from School of biological Science (SBS), University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) and Center of Excellence in molecular biology (CEMB) Lahore. He has published several research articles and book computers in reputed journals recognized from Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.  His research is mainly focused on the field of Bioinformatics, Genomics, Computational Biology and Molecular Biology in the domain of life science to performed computational analysis. He is now working in Ministry of Education as a Science subject instructor in the Department of Education Punjab, Pakistan.

 

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