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Wednesday, 25 March 2020

Top 10 Deadliest and Most Dangerous Viruses on the Earth

    Top 10 Deadliest and Most Dangerous Viruses on the Earth

                         Most harmful Viruses on the Earth 
A virus is a tiny infectious agent that replicates and grows only inside the living cells of any living organism. These infectious agents can infect all types of life on earth, from animals, plants to microorganisms and repeatedly lead to very severe or even deadly diseases. A virus genetic material for replication can be double-stranded DNA, double-stranded RNA, single-stranded DNA or single-stranded RNA. As Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a big issue nowadays for the world, below are the top 10  deadliest and most dangerous viruses on the earth.

          1.  Marburg Virus(MARV)

Ø  It is members of the filovirus family and are characterized by hemorrhagic fever.
Ø  MARV causes Marburg virus disease in humans in the form of viral hemorrhagic fever
Ø  Death rate  of this  virus is as high as 90%
Ø  Host: Bats (yet to be confirmed)
Ø  Treatment : No antiviral therapy or other vaccine exists  till yet

     Marburg Virus(MARV)

         2.  Ebola virus (EV)

ü  Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a viral haemorrhagic fever of humans caused by ebolaviruses
ü  Signs and symptoms: start between 2  days to 3 weeks like fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches.
ü   Death rate : 25% to 90% average 50%
ü  Genetic material: single-stranded RNA
ü  Treatments: REGN-EB3 and mAb114  90% effective
ü  Host: Bats

         3.  Hantavirus(Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)

  • v  Hantavirus cause Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in human
  • v  Symptom : Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)
  • v  Genetic material: three single-stranded, negative-sense RNA
  • v  Death rate : 25% to 50 average
  • v  Treatments: No available yet
  • v  Host: Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus)

          4.  Middle East respiratory syndrome, or MERS

·         Camel flu also known as  Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), ) is a viral respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus ( MERS‐CoV) that was first identified in the middle east (Saudi Arabia) in 2012
·         Symptoms: Fever, Cough, Diarrhea and shortness of breath
·         Death rate : 35% to 40 %
·         Genetic materials: Single-stranded RNA belonging to the genus betacoronavirus
·         Host : Camel
·         Treatment: Combination of antivirals drugs

         5.  Severe acute respiratory syndrome((SARS)

Ø This virus  causes severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS)
Ø It can infect humans, bats, and palm civets.
Ø Genetic materials : positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus
Ø  Death rate : 9 to 10 %
Ø  Treatment:
Ø  Primary Human receptor of the virus: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)
Ø  Treatment: Combination of antiviral drugs

           6.  Japanese encephalitis virus(JEV)

o   Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)
o   Humans can get this disease  through mosquito bites that carries the virus
o   Sign and symptoms:  headache, high fever, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck,
spastic paralysis, confusion and seizures
o   Genetic material: positive sense single-stranded RNA genome
o   Death rate : 10 % 30%
o   Treatment : No specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis

                7.    Lassa fever virus

                                               Morality rate  15 to   50%

            8.  Influenza: 

                                              Morality rate  10 to  40%

            9.  Dengue:

                                            Morality rate  2 to  20%

        10. SARS-CoV-2:

c                                                           Coronaviruses (COVID-19)

v Morality rate  2 to  10%
v  SARS-CoV-2,  also known as coronaviruses,
v  Disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 called COVID-19
v  Sign and symptoms: fever, dry cough and shortness of breath, and the disease can progress to pneumonia in severe cases.
v  Genetic material: RNA viruses with relatively large genomes(29,891 nucleotides).
v  Host : Not known yet.
v  Treatment: Combination of antiviral drugs

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