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Monday 10 August 2020

8613 solved thesis for b.ed 1.5 students


 Project Title: Developing students confidence through motivation at the secondary level 


This project is based on action research for B.ed classes 8613 from AIOU based on new pattern


Name of the School (here write your school name please):

Theme: developing student soft skills (performance at secondary level)

Subtheme: Student Confidence

Topic: Developing students self-confidence via motivation at the secondary level

Demographic detail of participants 

For the present research 70 participants are selected, all of them are student of 11th  and 12th classes, their ages are between 16 to 18 and the sample was consist of 40 students

Socio-economic conditions of participants

The participants in this research mostly belong to a different category in which socio-economic conditions are not good and they cannot afford the expenses of their children's study. Many participants relate to the middle class families. They were very much relying on school environment and teachers communication for perceiving the knowledge   

Location of school

The present research conducted in Government school………which is situated in the ………

Reputation of school

The school has a great discipline and is very organized in teaching the curriculum of Punjab text board and school show great annual results every year, therefore the passaging ration of students are very good

Details of the school

In selected school for research, for teaching the teacher used mainly three languages such as Urdu, English and Punjabi, the use of Urdu and Punjabi is most acceptable because the school location is present in urban areas. For skilled productivity and enhancement of knowledge of their students' teachers also used many mixed teaching approaches to teach using the direct method of effective communication. The term communication is the process of delivering a message by the communicator to the communicant.

1. Why did you select this specific sub-theme and topic? Relate it to your experience/problem in your classroom/institution. (10 marks) 8613 project 

(Give the background and rationale of the study)

The present topic has been selected for action research because the self-confidence issue is faced by all the students in different levels of education for career development. In the field of education, teaching and learning go side by side. Education is the only tool that aims to equip and empower its learners with the right knowledge. This knowledge also works towards acquiring various competencies and skills that are required for any citizen to capture good employment opportunities and have a positive impact on society. 

2. What was your discussion with your colleague / friend / senior teacher or supervisor regarding the problem? (05 marks)

(Provide your discussion with your colleague or supervisor for better understanding of the problem and alternate solutions)

Action research procedures (plan, act, observe, reflect and revise) were used to study the process and development of two classes. I learned that not only intelligence-factors but also emotional ones play an important role in learning and they will develop gradually and interact with each other. Hence, it would become important to improve the students' basic skills so that they could participate in classroom activities with confidence. What I have done in my Integrated skills class was to make full use of the “Activities a based methodology based on motivation by teacher" of each unit. The parts include greetings with the novelty of concepts, farewells participation with more educated manners, introducing others, and asking and giving information with the depth of knowledge confidence based. Each time, we finished learning the parts; I would ask one of my students to give us a morning speech on a specific topic the next day by making a full preparation before class, which necessarily involved in activity-based learning from the first part.


3. What did you find about the problem in the existing literature (books/articles / websites)? (10 marks)

(Explore books and online resources to know what and how has been already done regarding this problem) 8613 project

The earlier researcher Bandura (1997) and Eccles (2009), was explained about Self-confidence is integral to psychological theories of motivation and after that various expert in the field of education Viljaranta, Tolvanen, Aunola, and Nurmi (2014), has practical relevance to education: students’ self-confidence has associated with their interest in particular subjects, for example, Regan and DeWitt (2015) analyzed about the concept with their choices of what subjects to study. According to Royal Society (2014, p.22) Students’ self-confidence and motivations are then highly relevant to teaching and policy within science education in England and many other countries, especially as higher numbers of science students are sought

The researcher Chen (2003); Chen & Zimmerman, (2007); Möller and Pohlmann, (2010); Pajares and Graham, (1999), explored that the studies of Secondary school students have often associated higher accuracy (not being over-confident or under-confident) with higher performance, but have also conversely associated over-confidence with lower performance and under-confidence with higher performance (Chiu & Klassen (2010). Studies with undergraduate students (the majority undertaken in the United States of America) have usually revealed higher accuracy but slight under-confidence in higher-performing students and over-confidence in lower-performing students (Ackerman & Wolman,(2007).


4. What were the major variables/construct of your project? Give definitions/descriptions from literature. (05 marks)

(What are the key terms in your topic or study? what do you mean of these terms? What particular meaning you will attach to the term when used in this project?) 8613 project

Experimental control group

In the study pretest and posttest experimental design was used. The main study sample comprised 30 students in a total them constituted the control group. When creating the experimental and control group, it was aimed not to cause any district differences between the groups to ensure this motivation and ABT had been done before the study, and their choices were made randomly in the classes that had similar performances to one another. The study was conducted the one of Govt ………………..


5. What did you want to achieve in this research project? (05 marks)

(Objective / purpose of the study; what was the critical question that was tried to be answered in this project) 8613 project

This research study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of activity-based teaching on student’s motivation and to measure the effect of activity based techniques on individual students’ academic achievement in science subjects.


1. To determine the effectiveness of the significant difference between activity-based approach of teaching and learning integrated science.

2. To determine the skills acquired between activity-based approach and the conventional method of teaching with motivation and learning integrated sconce.

3. To investigate the role played by the teachers with motivation via using the activity-based approach in the instruction of integrated science in the classroom.

Critical questions:

1.      What is the effect of activity-based teaching techniques on students’ motivation and academic achievement to the students in education at Secondary level?

2.      Is there a significant difference in the effect of activity-based teaching techniques on students’ motivation and achievement according to the two groups of respondents?

3.      What is the effect of gender motivation when exposed to an activity-based approach in teaching and learning integrated science.

4.      What is the role of a motivational teacher in organizing effective use of an activity-based approach in teaching and learning integrated science?


6. Who were the participants in your project? (05 marks)

(Give details of the individuals or groups who were focused in this project e.g. the early-grade students whose handwriting in Urdu was not good or the students of class VIII who did not have good communication skills) 8613 project

The sample of the study consisted of 40 students enrolled in Secondary school……. Which are shows less self-confidence to explore science subjects and not learn with motivation even they have an education combination group? Thirty students were randomly selected as the participants of the study and distributed randomly to the experimental and controlled group.

The participants chose for the present research have been in the school for more than two years. They have undertaken an examination every year to move on to the next academic level. Many students despite beginning serious about the studies remain unable to perform well in exams. They are only thought the curriculum but are not prepared mentally by the teacher to be motivated and encourage enough to understand the exam. Thus some time fail to achieve the pressure and do not performs according to the expectation of their teachers and parents. They feel confused about structuring tens and grammar structures. Thus the researcher explores to identify the problem by teaching them different methods.

The total of 70 participants are selected for the current study, all of them are students of 11th  and 12th  classes and their ages between 16 and 18. Among 70 students all are boys because here only avail in this school so it is confirm that all 40 boys are participants as samples in this action research. All participants belong to the middle-class families who don’t have rich sources for English language learning. Thus they very much rely on school teacher and curriculum

7. How did you try to solve the problem? (10 marks)

(Narrate the process step-wise. Procedure of intervention and data collection)

The science process skills test (SPST) was used to measure the integrated science skills the test developed by GOVT Secondary school science teachers. The teachers who have 11 eleven dimensions
·         5 items related to formulating a hypothesis
·         6 items related to identifying variable
·         6 items related to defining operationally
·         6 items related to the interpretation of data
·         3 items related to formulating models and
·         7 items related to experimenting.

The Pre-test post-test control group design

 Which is one of the methods of the experimental design is applied to all participants attendant the four hours lectures per week in a science course, while the students in the control group were being taught the conventional method (lecture method). The one in the experimental group were supplied some hands activities prepared by the researcher to improve their science process skills.

Table number of activities aiming to improve the skills in all the groups


8. What kind of the instrument was used to collect the data? How was the instrument developed? (05 marks)

(For example: observation, rating scale, interview, student work, portfolio, test, etc.) 8613 project

Experimental group

An experimental study design utilized in this study consisted of an experimental group and a controlled group.

Control group

 The experimental group received treatment, while the control group received no treatment.

Random selection

Random assignment for selection of subjects was considered and pre-test and post-test control group design of experimental research was used for this study.

The sample of the study consisted of 80 students enrolled in Secondary education and unrolled for two years. Thirty students were randomly selected as the participants of the study and distributed randomly to the experimental and controlled group.

9. What were the findings and conclusion? (Provide instruments and analysis as appendix) (10 marks) 8613 project

Based on the results and discussion, this study concluded that activity-based teaching enhances student motivation and improves academic achievement in education at the higher secondary level. Teaching styles attract students and play a positive role in student motivation and improve academic achievement for better results in learning.

-          In order to develop higher-order thinking skills, it is important to conduct lessons using activity-based teaching.

-          Teacher training programs on activity-based teaching may also be conducted by educational institutions to enhance teachers’ teaching skills.

-          Guide the development trend of students and their needs and develop their talents and the direction of education is correct.

-          The teachers should employ and emphasize on improvisation which capacitated the acquisition of basic and process skills.

-          Teachers should provide opportunities for students to self-study, where the benefit of the teaching-learning situation in their future.

-          Adequate supply of learning and teaching materials should be provided so as to enhance learning and teaching effectively.

-          Adequate funding should be provided by the government.

-          Non-governmental the organization should assist the situation through the provision of materials and other learning materials.

-          Encourage for work in a group for the co-operative learning process.

-          Encourage the students to take responsibility of their own learning.

10. Summary of the Project (05 marks) 8613 project

 (What and how was the research conducted – main objective, process and findings)
·         Activity-based teaching strategies describes a range of pedagogical approach to learning teaching its core premises include the requirement that learning should be based on doing some hand experiments.
·         The idea of the activity-based approach is rooted in the common notion that children are active learners rather than passive recipients of the information. If the child is provided the opportunity to explore by their own and provide an optimum learning environment than the learning becomes joyful and long-lasting.

11. How do you feel about this practice? What have you learnt? (Self-reflection) (10 marks) 8613 project

Learning by students through activity-based teaching with motivational strategies on the experience you get is of great importance because of the education sector, with many goals and the advantages and benefits. I believe students should improve their skills, for which teachers have to motivate them to have good writing skills, by providing instructions in writing processes and rules of writing, such as grammar rules and writing practice. Strong writing skills may enhance students ‘ chances for success. Any reading and language curriculum must think about the multidimensional nature of writing with self-confidence in instructional practices, evaluation procedures, and language development.

12. What has it added to your professional skills as a teacher? (05 marks) 8613 project

This research has made me aware of the responsibility that lay on a teacher to motivate his/her students towards studies. A teacher’s job is not only to teach the curriculum to the students. A teacher also develops a positive attitude of the students towards studies so they feel encouraged to acquire education and do not feel burdened. It is mandatory for teachers to make their lesson plans interesting and motivating for students to make part in daily class activities.

APA manual – 6th Edition). Examples of format are available on websites.  (05 marks) 8613 project

1.      Ackerman, P., & Wolman, S. (2007). Determinants and validity of self-estimates of abilities and self-concept measures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13(2), 57–78.
2.      Archer, L., DeWitt, J., Osborne, J., Dillon, J., Willis, B., & Wong, B. (2010). Doing science versus being a scientist: examining 10/11-year-old schoolchildren’s constructions of science through the lens of identity. Science Education, 94(4), 617–639.
3.      Arens, A. K., Seeshing Yeung, A., Craven, R., & Hasselhorn, M. (2011). The twofold multidimensionality of academic self-concept: domain specificity and separation between competence and affect components. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(4), 970–981.
4.      Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215.
5.      Chen, P., & Zimmerman, B. (2007). A cross-national comparison study on the accuracy of self-efficacy beliefs of middle-school mathematics students. The Journal of Experimental Education, 75(3), 221–244.
6.      Eccles, J. (2009). Who am I and what am I going to do with my life? Personal and collective identities as motivators of action. Educational Psychologist, 44(2),78–89.
7.      Huang, C. (2011). Self-concept and academic achievement: a meta-analysis of longitudinal relations. Journal of School Psychology, 49(5), 505–528.
8.      Marsh, H., Craven, R., & Debus, R. (1999). Separation of competency and affect components of multiple dimensions of academic self-concept: a developmental perspective. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45(4), 567–601.
9.      Mullis, I., Martin, M., Ruddock, G., O’Sullivan, C., & Preuschoff, C. (2009). TIMSS assessment fameworks. Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College.
10.  Usher, E., & Pajares, F. (2008b). Sources of self-efficacy in school: critical review of the literature and future directions. Review of Educational Research, 78(4), 751–796.
11.  Viljaranta, J., Tolvanen, A., Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2014). The developmental dynamics between interest, self-concept of ability, and academic performance. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 58(6), 734–756.

<Academy of Expert Writer>

<About CEO>

AIOU 8613

Mr. Imran Zafar has completed his Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in Bioinformatics from COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Islamabad Sahiwal campus under supervision of Dr. Ahmad Ali and Master of Science (MS) in Bioinformatics from Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan under supervision of Dr. Muhammad Tariq Pervez. For research work during BS and MS he has also done internships from School of biological Science (SBS), University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) and Center of Excellence in molecular biology (CEMB) Lahore. He has published several research articles and book computers in reputed journals recognized from Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.  His research is mainly focused on the field of Bioinformatics, Genomics, Computational Biology and Molecular Biology in the domain of life science to performed computational analysis. He is now working in Ministry of Education as a Science subject instructor in the Department of Education Punjab, Pakistan.


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